Newman referencing guidelines
 


*Attention Psychology students*
If you are a Psychology student then you will need to follow the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style.

Guidance on using the APA referencing style, including an online help forum can be found on the APA Guidance Moodle page. Alternatively you can email apa@newman.ac.uk


1. Academic Conventions
1.1 How should I present my work?
2. Ethical considerations
2.1 Referencing placement documents anonymously
3. Bibliographic Referencing
3.1 Why do we need to reference?
3.2 Which system of referencing does Newman use?
3.3 What are the different aspects of referencing?
3.4 In-text citation
3.4a In-text citation - multiple sources
3.4b In-text citation - multiple sources published in the same year by the same author(s)
3.4c In-text citation - more than three authors
3.5 End-text citation
3.6 Secondary referencing
3.7 How should I set out quotations?
3.7a Paraphrasing and summarising
3.8 Reference list/bibliography conventions
3.9 Footnotes
4. Referencing examples

 

1. Academic Conventions

1.1 How should I present my work?

In general the University requires work to be produced on a computer (except for some mathematical assignments). You should ensure that you can use Microsoft Word or a similar word processing package.

You should include your student number and module code in headers and/or footers to enable identification of your work and all pages must be numbered. All (non-electronic) coursework should be submitted in a plastic wallet. For more information on submitting your work - both electronic and non-electronic - please look in the Student Handbook and relevant Moodle pages.

Guidance on the presentation of individual items of assessment will be provided in relevant module handbooks and from your tutors. In general however:

• Use 2.5cm margins at the top, bottom, left and right of each page.
• Use double line spacing in the main body of the assignment, and single line spacing in the reference list/bibliography, with a double space between each reference.
• Use Tahoma, or if your PC doesn’t have this, an appropriate sans serif font such as Arial, in 12 point.


2. Ethical considerations
When undertaking research that involves children in schools or working with young people, confidentiality should be respected at all times. In accordance with Newman’s Ethical Guidelines, on no account should the real name of a school, teachers or children be used, without permission being obtained.

Studies must respect the privacy and psychological wellbeing of the individual participants. Photographs may only be used with the permission of all concerned. Advice should be taken from your supervisor on the appropriate storing and taking of images. Particular care must be taken in relation to photographs and images of children.

2.1 Referencing placement documents anonymously
If you need to reference a document or website related to your placement, then you need to ensure anonymity. Schools and other placement settings should be given code names; for example: 'Primary school one'.

As you can not include any information which may potentially identify the placement setting - such as web addresses - you will be unable to give full citations, so regardless of the format, you should only reference the author, date and title.

For example:

Primary school one (2012) Anti-bullying policy.


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3. Bibliographic Referencing

3.1 Why do we need to reference?

Referencing in academic writing has several purposes:

• It allows a reader to identify and find the sources which have been used
• It allows identification of the source of a particular quotation in your work
• It can help you to avoid plagiarism

When writing a piece of academic work you need to provide full bibliographic details (author, title, publisher, date and place of publication, page numbers etc.) for all sources that have been used. To allow others to identify different parts of the reference, a standard and consistent structure and format is used to present the reference.

3.2 Which system of referencing does Newman use?

There are several different referencing systems in use by the academic community. We use the Harvard System, also known as the “author-date” system. If you check the internet or other sources for information about the Harvard system, you will find a number of variations in its use. This is why we use the style from Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, which you can find in the library:

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

3.3 What are the different aspects of referencing?
In the text of your written work you may need to refer to the ideas, theories, and opinions of other writers, or give direct quotations from sources which you have consulted. In each case, it is essential that you provide full details of the work referred to, or 'cited'.

In the Harvard referencing system, there are two parts of the process; In-text citations and End-text citation, as described in 3.4 In-text citation and 3.5 End-text citation below.

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3.4 In-text citation
From a point within the main text of your written work the abbreviated reference, or citation, directs the reader to the bibliography. To create an in-text citation the bibliographic details you need are:

• Author’s name
• Publication date for the work
• Relevant page numbers

There are two different types of in-text citation:

When the author’s name occurs naturally in your writing:
If you are naming the author in your running text, put the date and page reference in round brackets:

Smith (2012, p. 47) argued that…

When the author’s name does not occur naturally in your writing:
If you are summarising an author’s work or not referring to the author directly in the running text, put all parts of the in-text citation in round brackets. If the citation is at the end of the sentence, put the full-stop after the reference:

...this was backed up in a recent study (Smith, 2012, p. 47).

3.4a In-text citation - multiple sources

If you need to refer to two or more publications at the same time, these can be listed separated by semicolons (;).

The publications should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the earliest date first. If more than one work is published in the same year then they should be listed alphabetically by author/ editor:

Recent environmental studies (Williams, 2007; Andrews, 2012; Martin and Richards, 2014) considered...

3.4b In-text citation - multiple sources published in the same year by the same author(s)

Multiple publications published in the same year by the same author/ editor should have a letter put after the year, in alphabetical order, both in-text and in your reference list.

In-text:

Sharing information is ‘essential for effective safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people’ (Department of Education, 2018a, p. 3) and everyone has a role to play in identifying any concerns and taking action to report them (Department of Education, 2018b, p. 11).

Reference list:

Department of Education (2018a) Information sharing: advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/721581/Information_sharing_advice_practitioners_safeguarding_services.pdf (Accessed: 9 July 2018).

Department of Education (2018b) Working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/722305/Working_Together_to_Safeguard_Children_-_Guide.pdf (Accessed: 9 July 2018).

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3.4c In-text citation - more than three authors

When citing publications by up to three authors or editors, all are listed:

In-text:

Recent research in this field (Harris and Jameson, 2017, p. 4) has discovered that...

In a newly-published survey Frost, Jones and Rose (2016, p. 51) argue that...

For publications by more than three authors or editors, cite the first name listed in the work followed by et al. et al is from Latin and translates as "and others":

In-text:

Design and technology is not just about making things (Cross et al., 2016, p. 162)...

Reference list:

Cross, A., Borthwick, A., Beswick, K., Board, J. and Chippindall, J. (2016) Curious learners in Primary maths, science, computing and DT. London: SAGE.

NOTE All authors'/editors' names would be given in your reference list (no matter how many there are) so that each author or editor can receive credit for their research and published work.

3.5 End-text citation

Gives full details of items cited in the text and directs the reader to the original source you are referring to.

See section 3.8 Reference list/bibliography conventions below, and look at the examples table for information on how to create this part of the reference.

In order to identify your sources clearly you will need to use both in-text citations and full references.

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3.6. Secondary referencing

It is sometimes the case that you wish to refer to, or quote from, a source which you have not read yourself, but which has been cited in a work that you have consulted. This is called ‘secondary referencing’ as you have not read the original piece of work.

Wherever possible, you should always try and read the original because by quoting a secondary reference, you are relying on the author you are reading to give a fair reflection of the contents of the original work.

If you have to give a secondary reference in your work, you must make it clear that you have not read the original. Use a phrase such as 'cited in' or 'quoted in' and give the page number on which your source cited that information. For example:

Campbell (2015, quoted in Day, 2017, p. 6) provides an example...

According to Black (2015, cited in Taylor and MacKay, 2017, p. 65) schools should encourage…

You would only reference the book you have read in your reference list (so Taylor and MacKay using the example above). You cannot include the original works because you haven’t read them.


3.7. How should I set out quotations?


Quotations of up to 3 lines

Use single quote marks around short quotations and include them in the body of the text. For example:

Nutbrown (2014, p. 36) suggests that 'continuity is an essential element of quality'.

Quotations of more than 3 lines

Longer quotations should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text, without quotation marks. For example:




3.7a Paraphrasing and summarising

Paraphrasing is putting an author’s ideas into your own words. It is a good way of demonstrating that you have understood the arguments and reduces the amount of direct quotes you have in your assignment. It is still important to use page numbers when you paraphrase though, so the reader can find where your information has come from:

In-text:

Turner-Bisset (2017, p. 35) talks about the importance of language development in the early years and relates it to the teaching of history…

You can summarise an entire article or chapter by talking about the main points or research findings from the text. When you are summarising an article or chapter, there is no need to put page numbers in your in-text citations:

In-text:

One important study (Cleeves and Cheng, 2016) covers the whole of the nineteenth century and discusses lots of ideas around…

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3.8 Reference list/bibliography conventions

You will be required to produce a reference list and/or a bibliography, at the end of your assignment.

The reference list only includes sources cited in the text of your assignment as in-text citations. A bibliography appears in the same format as a reference list, but it includes a list of all the sources you consulted for the assignment, and not just the ones you cited.

Please take note of the following conventions:

• All appropriate elements of the reference should be included

• Elements of the reference should be presented in the order identified by the system of referencing

• References should be arranged in a single alphabetical sequence by the author or editor’s last name, or when there is no author, by title (for web pages with no apparent author or title, the URL should be used)

• Do NOT include titles or qualifications in your references

• You should include the authors surname, followed by the initial(s).

• If no date can be identified, use (no date)

• Edition statements should be given for all publications but NOT for the first edition:
Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. and Tight, M. (2006) How to research. 3rd edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

• Punctuation should be consistent for all references. There are particular conventions for usage. For example;

surname<comma> initials<full stop>
e.g. Peters, W.R.

Place of publication<colon> Publisher<full stop>
e.g. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of the title and any proper nouns(with the exception of Journal and Newspaper titles):
A history of Shakespearean England

3.9 Footnotes

This system of referencing does not support the use of footnotes. Should any subject areas wish to use them, the same applies as to those who want to use a different system; i.e. in accordance with Newman's General Academic Regulations, where a subject specialism dictates the use of an alternative scheme of referencing, this should be published in the relevant subject handbook.

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4. Referencing examples

The following table gives the citation order (the order in which the different elements of the reference should be given) and examples of different reference types. The style is taken from the following book, where you can also find additional examples not included in this guide:

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Books, including e-books
Printed books
Chapter/section of an edited book
E-books (read using e-reader, for example Kindle, Kobo)
Audiobooks
Translated books
Foreign language books
Anthologies
Line of a poem from an anthology
Play
Dictionary
Encyclopedia article
Online reference book

Sacred texts
Bible
Torah
Qur'an

Journal articles and newspapers
Journal articles
Online only journals
Newspaper articles

The internet
Webpages
Blogs/vlogs
Wikis
Social networking websites (for example Facebook, Twitter)
Mobile apps

Reports
Reports
Financial reports from online databases (FAME)
Market research reports from online databases (Market Line reports from Business Source Premier)

Visual sources

Paintings/drawings
Photographs - printed
Photographs - internet
Photographs in online collections (for example, Flickr, Instagram)
Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

Audiovisual sources
Television/radio programmes
Television/radio programmes viewed/heard on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)
Television programme viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
Episodes of a television series
Episodes of a television series viewed on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)
Episodes of a television series viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
Audio/video downloads
Audio CD
Films on DVD/Blu-ray
Films viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
Films viewed on Box of Broadcast (BoB)
YouTube video

Public communications
Lectures/seminars/webinars/PowerPoint presentations/video conferences
Leaflets

Personal communications
Conversation/letter/email/telephone/Skype/text message/fax

Government publications
Departmental publications

Personal and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), e.g. Moodle
PowerPoint presentation
Journal articles
Text extracts from books digitised for use in VLEs

Unpublished and confidential information
Theses
Confidential information
Students' own work

Conferences
Conference papers published on the internet

Other sources
Interviews
Acts of parliament
Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords)

 

Books, including e-books

Books and e-books are referenced the same way, with the exception of e-books read on e-readers (see example below).

Printed books

• Author/editor (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• Edition (if not the first edition)
• Place of publication: publisher

Example: book with one author

In-text:
According to Bell (2018, p. 68), social media can help with a research project

Reference list:
Bell, J. (2018) Doing your research project. 7th edn. London: Open University Press.

Example: book with two or three authors

In-text:

Fox and Surtees (2010, p. 101) suggested...

Reference list:

Fox, S. and Surtees, L. (2010) Mathematics across the curriculum: problem solving, reasoning and numeracy in Primary schools. London: Continuum.


Example: book with more than three authors

In-text:

Design and technology is not just about making things (Cross et al., 2016, p. 162)...

Reference list:
Cross, A., Borthwick, A., Beswick, K., Board, J. and Chippindall, J. (2016) Curious learners in Primary maths, science, computing and DT. London: SAGE.

Example: book with an editor (s)

In-text:

This idea was fully explored in Stevens (2016, p. 4)

Reference list:

Stevens, G. (ed.) (2016) Early Years play. London: Harper.


Example: book with author(s) and editor(s)

In-text:

… some of the historical facts were inaccurate (Fulbright, 2015, p. 91).

Reference list:

Fulbright, K.J. (2015) Adapting period novels for the big screen. Edited by Douglas Bent. London: Penguin.

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Chapter/section of an edited book

• Author of the chapter/section (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of chapter/section (in single quotation marks)
• ‘in’ followed by editor of book, followed by (ed.) or (eds.)
• Title of book (in italics)
• Place of publication: publisher
• Page reference

In text:

Drawing plays an important role (Allen, 2017, p. 41)

Reference list:

Allen, R. (2017) ‘Drawing as a language in the early years’, in Miller, L., Drury, R. and Campbell, R. (eds.) Exploring early years education and care. Oxfordshire: Routledge, pp. 40-51.

NOTE actual page of reference is given in-text and the chapter page numbers are given in the reference list.


E-books (read using e-readers, for example Kindle, Kobo)

On e-readers page numbers often not available, so use the information you do have (loc, %, chapter/page).

• Author/editor (surname, initials)
• Year of publication of book (in round brackets)
• Title of book (in italics)
• Edition (if not the first edition)
• Available at: URL
• (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

Emma’s attempt at matchmaking often backfires (Austen, 1815, loc 85).

Reference list:

Austen, J. (1815) Emma. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Downloaded: 29 July 2018).

Back to examples

 

Audiobooks

• Author/editor (surname, initials)
• Year of publication/release (in round brackets)
• Title of book (in italics)
• Narrated by (if required)
• Available at URL
• (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

Harry has to pretend that he can’t hear the voices (Rowling, 2015).

Reference list:

Rowling, J.K. (2015) Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets. Available at: http://www.audible.co.uk (Downloaded: 19 June 2018).

 

Translated book

• Author/editor (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• Edition (if not the first edition)
• Translated by
• Place of publication: publisher

In text:

In his biography of Bach, Schweitzer (1911, p. 32) considered...

Reference list:

Schweitzer, A. (1911) J.S.Bach. Translated by Ernest Newman. New York: Dover Publications.


Foreign language books

If referencing a book printed in a foreign language, copy the title from the book exactly as it is.

• Author/editor (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of book (in italics)
• Place of publication: publisher

In text:

The depiction of twentieth century Indonesia is problematic (Kurniawan, 2017)...

Reference list:

Kurniawan, E. (2017) La bellezza è una ferita. Venice: Marsilio.

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Anthologies

• Editor/compiler of anthology (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of book (in italics)
• Place of publication: publisher

In-text:

… this can be illustrated by Wordsworth’s lyrical ballads (Wu, 2012)

Reference list:

Wu, D. (ed.) (2012) Romanticism: an anthology. 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.

 

Line of a poem from an anthology

• Author of the poem/prayer (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of poem/prayer (in single quotation marks)
• 'in' plus author/editor/compiler of book
• Title of book (in italics)
• Place of publication: publisher
• Page reference

In-text:

'Wild spirit, which art moving everywhere,
Destroyer and preserver, hear, oh hear!' (Shelley, 1998, p. 859).

Reference list:

Shelley, P.B. (1998) 'Ode to the West Wind', in Wu, D. (ed.) Romanticism: an anthology. 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 859-861.

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Play

• Author (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• Edition (if not the first edition)
• Edited by
• Place of publication: Publisher
• Act. Scene: line (in-text citation only)

In-text:

'I have no exquisite reason for’t, but I have reason good enough' (Shakespeare, 2008, 2.3:140).

Reference list:

Shakespeare, W. (2008) Twelfth night. Edited by Elam, K. London: Cengage Learning.

 

Dictionary

• Title (in italics)
• Year (in round brackets)
• Place of publication: Publisher

In-text:

The definition (The Oxford classical dictionary, 1970, p. 36)...

Reference list:

The Oxford classical dictionary (1970) Oxford: Clarendon.

 

Encyclopedia article

• Author (surname, initials)
• Year (in round brackets)
• Title of article (in quotation marks)
• Title of encyclopedia (in italics)
• Place of publication: Publisher

In-text:

'In genuine religion, we recognize God to be all good and all holy' (Griffin, 2003, p. 650).

Reference list:

Griffin, M.D. (2003) 'Demonology', New catholic encyclopedia. 2nd edn. London: Gale.

 

Online reference book

• Author/editor of book, followed by (ed.) or (eds.) if editor/sn
• Year of publication (in round brackets
• Title of section/definition (in single quotation marks)
• 'in' plus title of reference book (in italics)
• Available at: URL of section/definition
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The term 'multiculturalism' emerged in the 1960's in Anglophone countries (McLean and McMillan, 2009)

Reference list:

McLean, I. and McMillan, A. (eds.) (2009) 'Multiculturalism', in The concise Oxford dictionary of politics. Available at: http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t86.e853> (Accessed: 12 December 2011).

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Sacred texts

The Bible

(Theology students: please note that you do not need to put the Bible - or any other sacred text - in a bibliography or reference list. Please simply give a precise in-text reference as detailed below)

• Book of the Bible
• Chapter: verse
• Version of the Bible

In-text:

‘ I am weary of my crying’ (Psalms: 69-3)...

Reference list:

Psalms: 69-3, Authorised King James Version of the Bible.


The Torah

(Theology students: please note that you do not need to put the Torah - or any other sacred text - in a bibliography or reference list. Please simply give a precise in-text reference as detailed below)

• Torah
• Book
• Chapter: verse

In-text:

‘ The Lord spoke to Moses in the Sinai Desert’ (Bamidbar 1: 1)

Reference list:

Torah. Bamidbar 1: 1.


The Qur'an

(Theology students: please note that you do not need to put the Qur'an - or any other sacred text - in a bibliography or reference list. Please simply give a precise in-text reference as detailed below)

• Qur'an
• Surah (or chapter): verse

In-text:

'He will guide them and amend their condition.' (Qur'an 47: 5)

Reference list:


Qur'an 47: 5.

Back to examples

 

Journal articles and newspapers


Journal articles

• Author(s) (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of article (in single quotation marks)
• Title of journal (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
• Issue information (volume, part number, month or season)
• Page reference

In text:

The view proposed by Phillips (2006, p. 551)...

Reference list:

Phillips, D. (2006) ‘Investigating policy attraction in education’, Oxford Review of Education, 32 (5), pp. 551-559.

NOTE actual page of reference is given in-text and the article page numbers are given in the reference list.


Online only journal articles

Journal articles that have only been published online often do not have volume and issue information or page numbers. In this case you should state that the journal is online only and include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number. In your in-text reference, if there is no page number, write 'no page number'.

• Author (s) (surname, initial)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of article (in single quote marks)
• Title of journal (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
• [Online only]
• DOI

In text:

Panopticism as a technology of power is predicated on total and conscious visibility (Courtney, 2014, p. 5)

Reference list:

Courtney, S. J. (2014) 'Post-panopticism and school inspection in England', British Journal of Education [online only], DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2014.965806.

 

Newspaper articles

• Author(s) (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of article (in single quotation marks)
• Title of newspaper (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
• Edition if required (in round brackets)
• Day and month
• Page reference (if available)
• Available at: URL (if required)
• (Accessed: date) (if required)

In-text:

'There was some reluctance from potential asylum seekers to take part' (Ward, 2005, p. 7).

Reference list:

Print:

Ward, L. (2005) ‘X-ray plan for young asylum seekers’ The Guardian, 05 January, p. 7.

Online:

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian, 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draftresolution-90-days (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Back to examples

 

The internet


Webpages

• Author/ organisation
• Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)
• Title of webpage (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

Webpages with a named author:

In-text:

95 Trusts in England replied to the survey (Ives, 2018).

Reference list:

Ives, L. (2018) NHS still reliant on ‘archaic’ fax machines. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-44805849 (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

Webpages with an organisation as author:

In-text:

Over 200 historic monuments were turned blue to celebrate 70 years of the NHS (National Health Service, 2018).

Reference list:

National Health Service (2018) Buildings go blue. Available at: https://www.nhs70.nhs.uk/buildings-go-blue/ (Accessed: 12 July 2018).


Blogs/vlogs

• Author of message (surname, initial)
• Year that message was posted (in round brackets)
• Title of message (in quotation marks)
• Title of internet site (in italics)
• Day/month of posted message
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Shiela Webber (2010) noted that 'We found the majority of handouts in our sample placed more attention on the mechanics of preparing a research assignment...'

Reference list:

Webber, S. (2010) 'Assigning inquiry: how handouts for research assignments guide today's college students', Information literacy weblog, 20 July. Available at: http://information-literacy.blogspot.com/ (Accessed: 21 July 2010).

 

Wikis

• Title of article (in single quotation marks)
• Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
• Title of internet site (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The book has a long and complex history (‘Book of numbers', 2018).

Reference list:

'Book of numbers' (2018) Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Numbers (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

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Social networking websites (for example Facebook, Twitter)

Example: Facebook

• Author (if available, if not use page title)
• Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)
• Title of page (in italics)
• [Facebook]
• Day/month of posted message
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:


Newman University Library ran a successful ‘Dissertation survivor’ campaign (Newman University library, 2018)

Reference list:

Newman University library (2018) [Facebook] 9 May. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/NewmanUniversityLibraryUK/?ref=aymt_homepage_panel (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

Example: Twitter

• Author (surname, initials)
• Year Tweet was posted (in round brackets)
• [Twitter]
• Day/month of posted message
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The journal article was published on Newman library’s Twitter page (Newman University library, 2018).

Reference list:

Newman University library (2018) [Twitter] 28 March. Available at: https://twitter.com/NewmanLibrary (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

 

Mobile apps

Use the name of the producer of the app if available. If not use the title of the app as the first element.

• Producer (if given)
• Year of release/update (in round brackets)
• Title of app (in italics and capitalise initial letters)
• Edition (if given)
• Version number - if given (in round brackets)
• [Mobile app]
• Available at: app store name
• (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

The book was highly rated on Goodreads (2018).

Reference list:

Goodreads (2018) i-phone edition. (Version 3.9.6) [Mobile app]. Available at: Apple Appstore (Downloaded: 5 June 2018).

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Reports

Reports

• Author or organisation
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of report (in italics)
• Place of publication: Publisher

OR if accessed on the internet:

• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Fairtrade producers around the world are worried about their futures (Fairtrade Foundation, 2017, p. 5)

Reference list:

Fairtrade Foundation (2017) Brexit: let’s change trade for good. Available at: https://www.fairtrade.org.uk/~/media/FairtradeUK/Get%20Involved/Documents/APPG/FairtradeFoundation-Brexit-LetsChangeTradeForGood.pdf (Accessed: 3 July 2018).

 

Financial reports from online databases (FAME)

• Publishing organisation
• Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets)
• Title of extract (in single quotation marks)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Virgin Atlantic saw a 1% drop in turnover for financial year 2016/17 (Bureau van Dijk, 2018).

Reference list:

Bureau van Dijk (2018) 'Virgin Atlantic company report'. Available at: http://fame.bvdep.com (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

 

Market research reports from online databases (Market Line reports from Business Source Premier)

• Author or organisation
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of report (in single quote marks)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Market Line (2015) noted problems in the market...

Reference list:

Market Line (2015) 'Amazon UK Ltd'. Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 20 October 2015).

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Visual sources

Paintings/drawings

• Artist (surname, initials)
• Year (if available)
• Title of work (in italics)
• Medium [in square brackets]
• Institution or collection that houses the work, followed by the city

OR if seen online:

• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Edvard Munch’s painting The Scream (Munch, 1893) depicts…

Reference list:

Munch, E. (1893) The Scream [Oil on cardboard]. Munch Museum, Oslo.

Munch, E. (1893) The Scream [Oil on cardboard]. Available at: http://www.oxfordartonline.com (Accessed: 09 July 2018).

 

Photographs - printed

• Photographer (if known) (surname, initials)
• Year (in round brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• [photograph]
• Place of publication: Publisher (if available)

In-text:

The events in Winson Green that day were captured by Martin (1907).

Reference list:

Martin, P. (1907) Tram accident in Carver Street [Photograph]. Winson Green: Midland History Resource Centre.

 

Photographs - internet

• Photographer (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of photograph (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Brown (2016) shows an example of this kind of photography…

Reference list:

Brown, K. (2016) Eagle in flight. Available at: http://www.brownphotography.co.uk/eagle.html (Accessed: 14 May 2018).

Photographs in online collections (for example Flickr, Instagram)

• Photographer
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of photograph/video (or collection) (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed/downloaded: date)

In-text:

… this photograph sums up spring (Wernet, 2014)...

Reference list:

Wernet, L. (2014) Spring feelings. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/farbenflut/13546763753/in/gallery-flickr-72157695356899955/ (Downloaded: 13 June 2017).

 

Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

• Author of book (surname, initials)
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of book (in italics)
• Place of publication: Publisher
• Page reference of illustration, etc.
• Illus./fig./diagram/logo/table

In-text:

The figures can all be seen in the table (Wiseman and Bragg, 2014, p. 53).

Reference list:

Wiseman, R. and Bragg, R. (2014) Optimal sport performance. London: Routledge, p. 53, table.

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Audiovisual material


Television/ radio programmes

• Title of programme (in italics)
• Year of transmission (in round brackets)
• Name of channel
• Date of transmission (day/ month)

In-text:

Salmond appeared confident on a televised debate (Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling, 2014)...

Reference list:

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) BBC Two Television, 25 August.

 

Television/radio programmes viewed/heard on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)

• Title of programme (in italics)
• Year of original transmission (in round brackets)
• Name of channel
• Day and month of original transmission
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Salmond appeared confident on a televised debate (Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling, 2014)...

Reference list:

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) BBC Two Television, 25 August. Available at: http://www.learningonscreen.co.uk (Accessed: 15 June 2015).

 

Television programme viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
• Title of programme (in italics)
• Year of original transmission (in round brackets)
• Available on (name of subscription service)
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:
Nina Simone recorded over 40 albums in her career (What happened, Miss Simone?, 2015)
Reference list:
What happened, Miss Simone? (2015) Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 15 August 2015).

Episodes of a television series

• Title of episode (in single quotation marks)
• Year of broadcast (in round brackets)
• Title of programme (in italics)
• Series and episode numbers
• Name of channel
• Broadcast date (day/month)

In-text:

David Brent’s dance routine has since become iconic ('Episode 5', 2001).

Reference list:

'Episode 5' (2001) The Office, Series 1, episode 5. BBC Two Television, 13 August.

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Episodes of a television series viewed on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)

• Title of episode (in single quote marks)
• Year of transmission (in round brackets)
• Title of programme/series (in italics)
• Series and episode numbers (if known)
• Name of channel
• Day/month of transmission
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

David Brent’s dance routine has since become iconic ('Episode 5', 2001).

Reference list:

'Episode 5' (2001) The Office, Series 1, episode 5. BBC Two Television, 13 August. Available at: http://www.learningonscreen.co.uk (Accessed: 15 July 2015).

 

Episodes of a television series viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)

• Title of episode (in single quote marks)
• Year of transmission (in round brackets)
• Title of programme/series (in italics)
• Series and episode number (if known)
• Available on (name of subscription service)
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Piper Chapman is sent to prison for drug smuggling ('I wasn't ready', 2013).

Reference list:

'I wasn't ready' (2013) Orange is the new black, Series 1, episode 1. Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 4 June 2014).

 

Audio/video downloads

• Artist (if available; if not use title first)
• Year of distribution
• Title of recording (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

Mr Brightside was a major success (The Killers, 2004).

Reference list:

The Killers (2004) Mr Brightside. Available at: http://www.apple.com/uk/itunes (Downloaded: 24 January 2013).

 

Audio CD

• Artist
• Year of distribution (in round brackets)
• Title of album (in italics)
• [CD]
• Place of distribution: Distribution company

In-text:

The singer's latest album, Aphrodite (2010) which was released earlier this year has been described as a triumph on the pop scene.

Reference list:

Minogue, K. (2010) Aphrodite [CD]. London: Parlophone.

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Films on DVD/Blu-ray

• Title of film (in italics)
• Year of distribution (in round brackets)
• Director
• [DVD] or [Blu-ray]
• Place of distribution (if known): Distribution Company

In-text:

The repetitive nature of everyday life has been the subject of some films, for example, Groundhog day (1993).

Reference list:

Groundhog day (1993) Directed by Harold Ramis [DVD]. Los Angeles: Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.

 

Films viewed on a streaming service, (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)

• Title of film (in italics)
• Year of distribution (in round brackets)
• Directed by
• [Film]
• Place of distribution (if known): distribution company
• Available on (name of subscription service)
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

You can look at films such as Hitchcock's The Birds (1963), to see how far special effects have developed.

Reference list:

The Birds (1963) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Universal Pictures. Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 15 July 2015).

 

Films viewed on Box of Broadcasts (BoB)

• Title of film (in italics)
• Year of distribution (in round brackets)
• Directed by
• [Film]
• Place of distribution (if known): distribution company
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

You can look at films such as Hitchcock's The Birds (1963), to see how far special effects have developed.

Reference list:

The Birds (1963) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Universal pictures. Available at: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 (Accessed: 5 June 2015).

 

You tube video

• Name of person/organisation posting video
• Year video posted (in round brackets)
• Title of film or programme (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

A video demonstrates the basics (New RefWorks, 2016)...

Reference list:

New RefWorks (2016) RefWorks in 20 minutes. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hlKHDAI-J6w (Accessed: 13 January 2017).

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Public communications


Lectures/seminars/webinars/PowerPoint presentations/videoconferences

• Author/speaker
• Year (in round brackets)
• Title of communication (in italics)
• Medium [in square brackets]
• Module code: module title (if appropriate)
• Institution (if appropriate)
• Day/ month

In-text:

'It is important to understand the basics of referencing as soon as you start your studies' (Bennett, 2015).

Reference list:

Bennett, K. (2015) Referencing. [Information skills PowerPoint presentation]. Newman University. 25 October.


Leaflets

Leaflets are unlikely to have all the citation elements, so include as much information as possible. It may also be useful to include a copy of a leaflet in an appendix to your assignment.

• Author (individual or corporate)
• Date (if available)
• Title (in italics)
• [Leaflet obtained...]
• Date

In-text:

Birmingham City Council (2016) offer a wide range of summer activities...

Reference list:

Birmingham City Council (2016) Summer 2016 in Birmingham. [Leaflet], 4 June 2016.

 

Personal communications


Conversation/letter/email/telephone/Skype/text message/fax)

• Sender/speaker/author
• Year (in round brackets)
• Medium
• Receiver of communication
• Day /month

In-text:

Slater (2007) argued that 'the article was written from a Marxist perspective'.

Reference list:

Slater, H. (2016) E-mail to Brian Jones, 10 January.

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Government publications


Departmental publications

• Government department
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• Place of publication: Publisher.

OR if viewed online:

• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Sharing information is ‘essential for effective safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people’ (Department of Education, 2018, p. 3)

Reference list:

Department of Education (2018) Information sharing: advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers. London: Department of Education.

Department of Education (2018) Information sharing: advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/721581/Information_sharing_advice_practitioners_safeguarding_services.pdf (Accessed: 9 July 2018).

NOTE: if you are referencing government publications from a different country put the country in round brackets after the department name.

 

Personal and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), e.g. Moodle


PowerPoint presentations

• Author or tutor
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of presentation (in quotation marks)
• [PowerPoint presentation]
• Module code: module title (in italics)
• Available at: URL of VLE
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

There are two types of poverty - absolute and relative (Andrews, 2016).

Reference list:

Andrews, N. (2016) 'Understanding inequalities' [PowerPoint presentation]. HEU407: Health and social care around the world. Available at: http://moodle.newman.ac.uk/15-16/course/view.php?id=977 (Accessed: 15 January 2016).

Journal article

For journal articles where you have all the required elements for the reader to track the article down, you should simply cite and reference the article the same way you would a normal journal. If it is an extract from a journal, follow the example below for 'Text extracts'.


Text extracts from books digitised for use in VLEs

• Author
• Year of publication of book (in round brackets)
• Extract title (in single quotation marks)
• in
• Title of book (in italics)
• Place of publication: publisher (if available)
• Page numbers of extract
• Module code: module title (in italics)
• Available at: URL of VLE
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

'Pragmatics is another broad approach to discourse' (Schiffrin, 1994).

Reference list:

Schiffrin, D. (1994) 'Pragmatics', in Approaches to discourse. London: Blackwell, pp. 190-231. ENU408: Introduction to language and literature. Available at: http://moodle.newman.ac.uk/15-16/course/view.php?id=1226 (Accessed: 16 January 2016).

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Unpublished and confidential information

Theses

• Author
• Year of submission (in round brackets)
• Title of thesis (in italics)
• Degree statement
• Degree awarding body

If viewed online:

• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Research by Atherton (2012) and Scott (2007)...

Reference list:

Atherton, J. (2012) Rioting, dissent and the church in late eighteenth century Britain. PhD thesis. University of Leicester.

Scott, Z.A.A. (2007) The inquiring sort: ideas and learning in late eighteenth-century Birmingham. PhD thesis. University of Warwick. Available at: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.491507 (Accessed: 14 June 2014).

 

Confidential information

• Anonymised institution/agency
• Year (in round brackets)
• Title of document (in italics)

In-text:

The school has very clear guidelines on how to deal with cyber bullies (Secondary school one, 2013)

Reference list:

Secondary school one (2013) Anti-bullying policy.

 

Students' own work

• Student name
• Year of submission (in round brackets)
• Title of essay/assignment (in single quotation marks)
• Module code: module title (in italics)
• Institution
• Unpublished essay/assignment

In-text:

… which was discussed in a previous assignment (Budd, 2016)...

Reference list:

Budd, C. (2016) 'Critical analysis of the airline industry: focus on British Airways', BEU401: Self-leadership and academic skills. Newman University. Unpublished assignment.

Conferences


Conference papers published on the internet

• Author of paper
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title of paper (in quotation marks)
• Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)
• Location and date of conference
• Publisher
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

According to Conole (2010) 'the sheer variety of new technologies available now is bewildering . '

Reference list:

Conole, G. (2010) 'Current challenges in learning design and pedagogical patterns research' Seventh international conference on networked learning, Denmark 3rd and 4th May. Open University. Available at: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/Conole.html (Accessed: 22 July 2010).

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Other sources


Interviews

• Name of person interviewed
• Year of interview (in round brackets)
• Title of the interview (if any) (in single quotation marks)
• Interview with/interviewed by
• Interviewer's name
• Title of publication or broadcast (in italics)
• Day and month of interview, page numbers (if relevant)

Example: newspaper interview

In-text:

‘ I hoped I wouldn’t see the worst of my fears come true’ (Clinton, 2018)

Reference list:

Clinton, H. (2018) 'Saturday interview'. Interview with Hillary Clinton. Interviewed by Decca Aitkenhead for The Guardian, 29 June, p. 33.

Or if online:

Clinton, H. (2018) 'Saturday interview'. Interview with Hillary Clinton. Interviewed by Decca Aitkenhead for The Guardian, 29 June. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jun/29/hillary-clinton-on-trumps-child-detention-policy-it-keeps-me-up-at-night (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

Example: television interview

In-text:

… where he gave his opinion on Brexit (Cleese, 2018).

Reference list:

Cleese, J. (2018) Interviewed by Emily Maitlis for Newsnight, BBC Two Television, 10 July.

 

Acts of parliament

• Title of Act including year and chapter number (in italics)
• County/jurisdiction (only if referencing more than one country's legislation)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed: date)

In-text:

In chapter 16 of the recent Act of parliament (European Union (withdrawal) Act 2018)...

Reference list:


European Union (withdrawal) Act 2018, c. 16. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2018/16/contents (Accessed: 13 July 2018).

 

Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords)

• Parliament. House of...
• Year of publication (in round brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• Bill number (in brackets)
• Place of publication: publisher

In-text:

Haulage companies expressed concern about the provisions of the Transport Bill (Parliament. House of Commons, 1999).

Reference list:

Parliament. House of Commons (1999) Transport Bill (Bills 1999-2008). London: The Stationery Office.

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Last updated: 16 July 2018